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滨州2018中考英语总复习第二部分专项语法高效突破专项3代词课件20

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第二部分 专项语法
专项3 代 词

高效突破

高频考点精讲 考点1 人称代词、物主代词及用法
1.人称代词的用法 人称代词主格在句子中作 主语,用在动词前。宾格 在句中作宾语,用在动词 或介词后,也可以作表语, 用在系动词后。如:①We have never been there. 我们从未去过那儿。② Can you look after her while I’m away? 我不 在时,你能照顾一下她吗? ③Let’s go and find him.我们去找他吧。④— Who’s the boy in the picture?照片中的男孩 是谁?—It’s me.是我。

2.物主代词的用法
类别 作用

形容词性物 主代词

作定语

作主语

名词性物主 代词

作宾语

作表语

例句 We must protect animals,they are our friends.我们必须保护动物,它们是我们 的朋友。 Would you please lend me your English book?Mine isn’t here.我能借一下你的 英语书吗?我的不在这儿。 This isn’t your football,Tom.You left yours at school.这不是你的足球, 汤姆。你把你的落在学校了。 —Whose book is it?这是谁的书?— It’s mine.是我的。

与of连用作 The red skirt of hers is very 定语 beautiful.她的那条红色裙子非常漂亮。

【注意】 ①形容词性物主代词具有形容词的作用,不能单独使用,放在 名词前面作定语。名词性物主代词具有名词的特征,相当于 “形容词性物主代词+名词”,它只能独立使用,后面不跟名 词。如:This computer is mine.=This is my computer.这 是我的电脑。 ②物主代词前后不能有this,that,some,a,an,the等词修 饰。如不能说the his watch。 ③当表示强调时,形容词性物主代词可与own连用,意为“某人 自己的”。如:her own bike她自己的自行车。

考点2 反身代词及用法

1.反身代词的构成: (1)第一、二人称反身代词构成:形容词性物主代词+ self/selves。 (2)第三人称反身代词构成:人称代词宾格+self/selves。
我(们)自 你(们)自 他(们)自 她(们)自 它(们)自 己 己 己 己 己 myself yourself himself herself itself ourselve yourselv themselv themselv themselv s es es es es

单数 复数

2.反身代词的用法:

例句 He can take care of himself.他能照 作宾语 动词或介词之后 顾好他自己。 The poor boy in the story was 作表语 系动词之后 myself.这个故事里可怜的男孩是我自 己。 名词或代词之后或句 I myself did it.=I did it myself. 作同位语 末 我自己做的。

用法

位置

3.反身代词在滨州中考中涉及到其在介词后的语义、词义辨析, 应牢记对应词的基本意义。另外还要熟悉常见的固定搭配。for oneself “为自己”;hurt oneself “伤害自己”;prove oneself “证明自己”;keep sth.to oneself“保密”; dress oneself“自己穿衣服”;主语+oneself...“某人亲 自……”;help oneself (to)“自用(食物等)”;enjoy oneself=have a good time “玩得高兴”;learn sth.by oneself=teach oneself sth.“自学”;by oneself = do sth.alone“独自做某事”

考点3 不定代词 1.普通不定代词 (1) one与it
例句 —Who has a novel named Tiny Times?谁有 指代同类事物中的 one 名叫《小时代》的小说?—I have one.我有 一个 一本。 指代上文中出现的The book is mine.It’s very interesting. it 同一个事物 这本书是我的,它非常有趣。 用法

(2)some与any
用法 some 例句
一般用于肯定句,但在表建议 ①I have some tea here. 我 或请求的疑问句中,可用some 这儿有些茶叶。②Would you 代any,表示说话人希望得到肯 like some coffee?你要不要 定的回答 来点咖啡? ①I can’t see any tea.我没 用于否定句、疑问句和if引导 看见茶叶。②Do you have any 的条件状语从句中;用于肯定 friends at school? 你在学校 句时表示“任何(一个/一些)” 有朋友吗?

any

(3)both, neither, either, all, none与any



都不

任何一 个

例句

①Both the boys are clever.两个男孩都很聪明。 ②Neither of the two boys 两者之间 both neither either is clever.两个男孩都不聪 明。③Either of the two boys is clever. 两个男孩 都很聪明。 ①All the flowers are gone.所有的花都谢了。②I 三者或三 don’t like any of the all none any 者以上 flowers.这些花我都不喜欢。 ③I like none of the flowers.这些花我都不喜欢。

(4)every与each

用法 例句 强调全体的概念,只作 ①Every student in our 形容词,不可单独使用, school works hard. 我们学校 every 也不可以作状语。与 的学生都很用功。 ②Every man not 连用,表示部分否 is not honest. 并非每个人都 定 诚实。 强调个体概念,可作代 ①Each student may have one 词或形容词,可作状语。 book.每个学生都可能有一本书。 each each 和not连用表示全 ②Each man is not honest.每 部否定 个人都不诚实。

(5)other,the other,others与another other 前加修 饰限定 可以 词 后跟名 可以 词 the others another other 不可 可以 例句

可以

不可

表确定 性







①Do you have any other 不可 questions?你还有其他问题吗? ②He has two daughters. One is a nurse, the other is a 可以 worker.他有两个女儿,一个是护 士,另一个是工人。 ③Give me some others, please. 请给我别的东西吧。 ④I don’t like this one. 不 Please show me another. 我不喜欢这一个,请给我看看另 一个。

相关短 some 语 other

one... some... one... the others another other

2.复合不定代词

表人
表物

somebody, anybody, everybody, nobody,no someone anyone everyone one something anything everything nothing

复合不定代词的用法: (1)复合不定代词作主语时,谓语动词要用单数形式。 (2)复合不定代词被形容词或else修饰时,形容词或else 需后置。 (3)由some构成的不定代词往往用于肯定句中;而由any 构成的不定代词则往往用于否定句或疑问句中。由some 构成的不定代词有时也可用于疑问句中,用来表明特殊 用意。

考点4 指示代词 不定代词中的指代数量: 1.one,this/these与that/those
代词

用法 例句 表示泛指,指前面提到 —Your watch is very nice.I 的那类人或物中的任何 want to buy one like yours.你 one 一个,用来代替可数名 的手表很漂亮。我想买一个和你一 词单数;其复数形式是 样的。—I bought it two weeks ones ago.我两周前买的。 ①This is her schoolbag.这是她 指近处的人或物,单数 this / these 的书包。②These books are his. 用this,复数用these 这些书是他的。 指远处的人或物,that ①That is his bike.那是他的自 指代同一类别中的另一 行车。②The weather in 个,用来代替不可数名 Guangdong is hotter than that that / those 词;those用来指代名 in Beijing.广东的天气比北京的 词复数,指代同一类别 热。③The buildings of Beijing 中的另一些,通常用于 are higher than those of 含有比较级的句子中 Zhongshan.北京的建筑比中山的高。

2.it的特殊用法 (1)指代前面提到过的事物。如:The book on the desk is not mine.It is Jim’s.书桌子上的书不是我的。它是吉姆的。 (2)代替指示代词this或that。如:—What’s that?那是什 么?—It is a pencil.它是一支铅笔。 (3)指代婴儿或不明身份的人。如:Someone is knocking at the door.Please go and see who it is.有人在敲门。请去看 看他是谁。 (4)指代时间或季节。如:—What’s the time now?现在几 点?—It’s ten o’clock.十点。 (5)指代天气。如:—What’s the weather like today?今天 天气怎么样?—It’s sunny.晴天。 (6)指代距离。如:How far is it from your school to your home?从学校到你家有多远?

(7)it的常用句型:①It is+adj.+(for / of sb.)to do sth. 做某事(对某人来说)……如:It is important for us to work hard.对我们来说努力学习是重要的。 ②It’s time to do / for / that...该做某事的时间了。如: It’s time to get up / for lunch / that we went home.该 起床了/该吃午饭了/我们该回家了。 ③It seems that...好像……如:It seems that you are right.看起来你是对的。 ④It’s one’s turn to do...轮到某人做……如:It’s your turn to sing.轮到你唱了。 ⑤It’s+adj.+that从句。如:It’s natural that they should have different views.他们有不同的观点是很自然的。 (8)作形式宾语。如:Do you think it necessary to learn to wait in line?你认为学习排队等候是有必要的吗? (9)构成强调句型“It is / was+被强调部分+that / who+ 其他成分”。如:It is he who goes to school by bike every day.他每天骑自行车上学。

十年真题全练 分析滨州近十年中考真题可以看出,代词是滨州中考的必考 点。在选择填空中,每年均会设一道考查代词的题目。不定 代词侧重于对指物的不定代词的考查,完形填空中也会涉及 不定代词辨析。预计2018年中考的选择填空中会继续考查代 词。 考点1 人称代词、物主代词及用法 1.[2010·滨州,25题]—Sally, could you go and help your father wash the car? —Why __A__? I’m busy now. Amy is lying on the grass doing nothing. A.me B.I C.him D.her

2.[2011·滨州,27题]—The pet cat in your hand is very nice. Is it __C__? —Yes, but I’ll give it to my friend Lucy as ______ birthday present. A.you;her B.your;her C.yours;her D.you;hers 3.[2015·滨州,23题]—David, is that __D__ English teacher? —Yes, he is ______. He is very caring. A.yours;ours B.your;our C.yours;our D.your;ours

考点2 反身代词及用法 4.[2009·滨州,33题]—Welcome to my home for dinner, children.Help __C__ to some chicken. I’ll cook some fish for you. —Thank you,Aunt Li. A.yourself B.you C.yourselves D.ourselves 5.[2014·滨州,35题]The song I believe I can fly tells us that believing in __C__ is very important. A.themselves B.itself C.ourselves D.yourselves 6.[2017·滨州,24题]—Do you know who taught __C__ Russian? —Nobody. He learned it by ________. A.his;himself B.him;him C.him;himself D.his;him

考点3 不定代词 7.[2009·滨州,22题]—Which do you prefer, bread or rice? —__B__. I’m not hungry now. Thank you all the same. A.Either B.Neither C.Both D. None 8.[2012·滨州,22题]I am very thirsty. Could you please give me __A__ water? A.some B.little C.many D.other 9.[2012·滨州,26题]__B__ went hiking last weekend because of the bad weather. A.Someone B.No one C.Everyone D.Nothing

10.[2013·滨州,25题]—Which of the two T?shirts will you take? —I’ll take __B__. One is for my brother and the other is for myself. A.either B.both C.neither D.all

11.[2016·滨州,23题]—Don’t be angry with your kid when he makes a mistake again, will you? —No, I won’t. I know that __A__ of us are perfect after all. A.none B.neither C.each D. all

考点4 指示代词 12.[2008·滨州,29题]My son wants 8 pet rabbits for long,but I have no time to buy__C__ for him. A.it B.that C.one D.none

猜押预测 1.—Is that bike Tom’s? —No,__C__ is over there. A.she B.her C.his D.he 2.The room is empty.I can’t find __C__ in it. A.somebody B.nobody C.anybody D.everyone 3.We decide to make __C__ a rule for us roommates to turn off the lights at 10:30 pm. A.that B.this C.it D.one 4.Don’t just wait for others’ help.God helps those who help __D__. A.him B.you C.them D.themselves 5.—Pardon please. Whom did you ask to finish the task? —__B__. You have other things to do. A.They B.Them C.Theirs D.Themselves

7.Mary invited Tom and Ann to dinner, but __A__ of them came. A.neither B.both C.either D.none 8.—What else do you need, sir? —__A__ else. I’ve got enough. Thanks. A.Nothing B.Anything C.Something D.Everything 9.—Is there __D__ beef in the fridge? —No,there isn’t.There is ______ pork. A.some;any B.any;any C.some;some D.any;some 10.Do you have toys? I’d like to buy __B__ for my cousin. A.it B.one C.this D.that 11.—It is said that the TV program Readers was quite popular. —Yes. I watched __A__ at eight every Saturday. A.it B.them C.that D.those



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